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35城库存环比连跌六月 业内:一线城市需补库存

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 哈尔滨新区管委会与宝能集团签署战略合作框架协议 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

保障房里首次有了“暖心驿站”

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

It is up to other institutions — notably, Congress, courts and media — and the citizens at large now to do so.
这是第二枚被拍卖的诺贝尔和平奖奖牌,得主是第一个获得该奖项的拉美人——1936年诺贝尔和平奖奖牌被授予当年的阿根廷外长卡洛斯·萨维德·拉莫斯。
尽管榜单上以法国和英国学校居多,占全部上榜学校的44%,但今年的排行榜比以往任何时候都更多元化,上榜学校来自25个国家。
毕业3年后的平均薪资和薪资涨幅是主要的标准,各自占到排行榜权重的20%。在排名前25名的商学院当中,大多在这些标准中至少有一项得分较高。如果去掉平均薪资和薪资涨幅这两项标准,排名前十的商学院大多仍排名前十。只有南洋商学院(Nanyang Business School)和中欧国际工商学院(China Europe International Business School)例外,它们在博士和研究这一项上表现不佳。
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这难道不是我们所有人都想要的吗?唐·德雷珀(Don Draper)应该会理解的。
但是今年,研究者提出一种新的方法,这种方法可以通过真的细胞制作出有弹性真实的耳朵。这些细胞来自老鼠和奶牛,可以形成胶原凝胶,按任何模具成型。当放入使用3-D打印技术制作的耳朵模型后,一个小时内那些凝胶形成了一只假耳。在移植到对象之前,人造耳朵只需要在营养成分中生长培养几天。

The soaring prices of 2008, when oil reached more than $140 a barrel, will repeat, though not likely in 2014, Mr. Hummel said. The price 'is going to go higher.'
莱蒂齐娅·巴塔利亚按时间顺序为当地一家报纸记录了七八十年代巴勒莫的黑手党战争。如今,她的照片被一些博物馆和回顾展收录。
This sign varies from company to company. You must keep in mind that we are in a recession and if sales are down but the company isn't in jeopardy, this sign may not apply to you. However, if business is down to the point where it looks like the company is going to go under, start looking for a new job NOW! (See also: 20 Signs that a Pink Slip is Coming)
《钢铁侠3》(Iron Man 3)凭借12亿美元的票房总收入成为目前2013年最卖座影片。不过这还不足以令其主演小罗伯特·唐尼(Robert Downey Jr.)摘下我们票房收入最高演员的桂冠。今年,绰号“巨石强森”的德韦恩·约翰逊(Dwayne Johnson)凭借更加努力的工作,击败了唐尼。
This year has been one of diverse and bold hair and makeup choices, from the frizzy, matted blue-tinted mane of the Witch in “Into the Woods” to the shimmering, expertly shaped pompadour of James Brown in “Get On Up.” In some cases, the absence of hair comes into play, like the bald, heavy-on-the-eyeliner look of Ramses in “Exodus: Gods and Kings.”

Footnotes

  • 收入分配动作频频 下半年增收重点瞄向四大群体
  • This is the second time that both enterprises and institutions have adjusted basic pension, since the first simultaneous adjustment in 2016.

《雷神3:诸神黄昏》
The THE Asia University Rankings for 2017 rated Peking University and Tsinghua University, both in the Chinese capital of Beijing, as the second and third best universities in the continent. National University of Singapore is ranked the best.
n. 紧张,拉紧,血统
Well, at least Hilary has won something this year. I'm sure she's thrilled.
羽毛球、篮球、击剑、柔道、乒乓球、跆拳道、网球、举重、摔跤、室内排球、拳击、曲棍球#(&xYyCk,DE@+,qFq。
Enrollment: 388

新一轮调控组合拳剑指炒房 多地对企业个人购房再设限

References

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